FRANCIS LEROY & MATHILDE VANSPEYBROUCK, BIOCOSMOS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY FRANCIS LEROY & MATHILDE VANSPEYBROUCK, BIOCOSMOS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Frameshift mutation, animation. This is a change in a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) sequence caused by the addition or deletion of a single nucleotide. Prior to protein formation DNA (red) is transcribed into messenger RNA (ribonucleic acid, green). DNA and RNA are made up of a chain of many small molecules, known as nucleotides. During protein formation these nucleotides are read in groups of three called codons. Each codon corresponds to a specific amino acid (blue), which is used by the cell to build a complete protein. The normal process is shown in the top frame. In the lower frame a thymine nucleotide (T) is added. The code is now read differently, resulting in a considerable change in protein structure.
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