FRANCIS LEROY & PIERRE CAPACCHI, BIOCOSMOS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY FRANCIS LEROY & PIERRE CAPACCHI, BIOCOSMOS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Bacterial and eukaryotic DNA binding proteins, animation. These proteins have specific amino acid sequences that allow them to bind to areas of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, helix at right) and regulate gene expression. The first frame shows a helix-turn-helix domain which binds to the major groove of the DNA helix. Secondly, homeodomains allow proteins, such as transcription factors, to bind to the DNA molecule. In the third frame a leucine zipper domain is present. Proteins containing this domain often activate transcription. The final protein contains a zinc-finger domain, which can enable a protein to regulate the transcription of some rRNA (ribosomal ribonucleic aid) genes.
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