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FRANCIS LEROY & LOUIS BEUCLER, BIOCOSMOS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY FRANCIS LEROY & LOUIS BEUCLER, BIOCOSMOS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Synthesis of ATP, animation. This animation shows the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by chloroplasts after the imposition of a pH gradient. In the beaker to the left chloroplasts were left in an acidic buffer (pH 4) for several hours. The animation shows that in this beaker protons (yellow) move from the buffer into the chloroplast. These chloroplasts were then mixed with neutral buffer (pH 7) in the beaker to the right which also contained adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and orthophosphate (Pi). The protons move out of the chloroplast into the neutral buffer through the ATP synthase protein (shown in the centre of the chloroplast membrane). The structure to the right of this beaker shows the process by which the flow of protons through ATP synthase drives the formation of ATP from ADP and Pi.
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