IBM RESEARCH / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY IBM RESEARCH / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Supercomputer microchip stack. Stack of 3D microchips for use in supercomputers, cooled using a hot-water cooling system. Initial research into this technology was announced in 2008, and is currently being used at ETH Zurich and in the SuperMUC supercomputer built near Munich, Germany. These microchip stacks use IBM's Aquasar cooling technology, with micro-channels directing water directly over the processor surface. It is thought that by 2025, technology like this will allow supercomputers to be the size of a desktop PC. SuperMUC began operating in 2012.
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