EMILIO SEGRE VISUAL ARCHIVES / AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY EMILIO SEGRE VISUAL ARCHIVES / AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
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Rubin's National Medal of Science. US astronomer and astrophysicist Vera Rubin (1928-2016, nee Cooper, left) shaking hands with President Bill Clinton (centre) and Vice President Al Gore (right) in the South grounds of the White House on 30 September 1993. She is being presented with the National Medal of Science. Rubin's doctoral work in the 1950s showed that galaxies are unevenly distributed in the Universe, going against contemporary theories. In the 1970s, her research at the Carnegie Institute of Washington, USA, into spiral galaxies led to the proposal of dark matter, the unknown substance now believed to constitute over 90 percent of the Universe.
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