DR KEITH WHEELER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY DR KEITH WHEELER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Grapevine stem. Light micrograph of a section through the stem of a grapevine (Vitis vinifera), showing the primary tissue. The outer epidermis and outer cortex (brown) are made of parenchyma cells. Below the inner cortex are separate vascular bundles and an upper layer of a ring of fibres (brown); next is the phloem (dark brown) with sieve tubes; then a ring the cambium (light brown). The xylem under the cambium consists of large vessels (brown circles) that are scattered (diffuse porous-wood). The rest of the wood is made up of smaller vessels (tracheids) and wood parenchyma. The radial lines running through the xylem and phloem are medullary rays (light brown). The central pith is full of parenchyma cells (brown). Magnification: x7 when printed 10 centimetres wide.
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