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Newton's law of universal gravitation. This equation was formulated by Isaac Newton in his publication 'Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica' in July 1687. The equation states force (F) between two objects is proportional to the product of their masses (m1 and m2) divided by the square of the distance between them (r). G represents the gravitational constant. The equation applies to the movements of objects as big as stars and planets. It was used by space engineers to calculate the energy needed to fly rockets into space.
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