FRANCIS LEROY & NATHAN PETIT, BIOCOSMOS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY FRANCIS LEROY & NATHAN PETIT, BIOCOSMOS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Bacterial defence against viral DNA. Animation showing the mechanism by which bacteria use restriction enzymes to defend against viral DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) injected by bacteriophages. A bacteriophage (green) injects viral DNA (red). Bacterial restriction enzymes (red, round) cut this viral DNA at positions containing a genetic sequence (blue) recognized by these enzymes. The bacterium's own genetic material (blue, lower centre) is protected from the action of these enzymes by methyl groups (yellow) added to the sites susceptible to be targeted by them.
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