FRANCIS LEROY & OLIVIER WAUTIER, BIOCOSMOS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY FRANCIS LEROY & OLIVIER WAUTIER, BIOCOSMOS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Animation showing a solute (green dots) being transported across a Gram negative bacteria's cell wall. The Gram negative cell wall consists of an inner (cytoplasmic) phospholipid membrane (bottom), a periplasmic space (black), and an outer phospholipid membrane (top) containing lipopolysaccharides. Solutes diffuse through pores (dark red) in the outer membrane and are bound by proteins (orange) in the periplasmic space. Solute binding causes a conformational change in the protein that allows it to interact with an ABC transporter protein in the inner membrane. This protein uses energy from ATP (adenosine triphosphate) to transport the solute across the inner membrane into the cell interior.
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