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Human-powered flight, 19th-century artwork. At top left is a 17th-century design by a French locksmith called Besnier. This use of arms and legs to power 'wings' was reported in the 'Journal des Savants' of 1678. At centre left and lower left are two views of the human-powered flying machine (ornithopter) designed by Austrian showman Jakob Degen and first used in 1809. It was not capable of independent flight and was used in conjunction with a balloon to provide lift. At upper right and lower right are two views of the 'flying car' proposed in designs drawn by British portrait painter Thomas Walker and described in his booklet 'The Art of Flying' (1810).
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