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Joseph Erlanger (1874-1965), American physiologist. Erlanger is best known for his work on the electrophysiology of nerves, on which he collaborated with Herbert Gasser (1874-1965). The pair recorded the electrical impulses transmitted by nerves on an oscilloscope that they adapted for this use. Their results showed that there were different types of nerve that carried specific impulses. For example, those relating to pain or heat. Erlanger and Gasser were awarded the 1944 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work.
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