DAVID A. HARDY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY DAVID A. HARDY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Formation of a volcano. Artwork of the process by which a volcano forms, with an observer at left. The sequence runs from top to bottom. Lava forces its way to the surface from a magma chamber deep underground (top). Repeated eruptions of lava and ash (centre) form the layers of a volcanic cone (stratovolcano). This eventually becomes dormant (bottom), but often still emits steam and may become active with new eruptions if the magma rises to the surface again.
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