GWEN SHOCKEY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY GWEN SHOCKEY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Illustration of an infection of a kidney (pyelonephritis, upper left). Pyelonephritis may be either acute or chronic. The acute form is usually caused when bacteria causing cystitis spread up the ureters from the bladder (lower centre). It causes fever and back pain. Treatment is with antibiotic drugs. The chronic form usually starts in childhood, and may lead to permanent kidney damage.
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