CAROL AND MIKE WERNER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY CAROL AND MIKE WERNER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Illustration depicting Influenza virus reproduction. Influenza viruses bind through haemagglutinin onto salic acid sugars on the surfaces of epithelial cells. The virus enters the cell through the process of endocytosis. Once inside the cell part of the viral haemagglutinin fuses with the vacuole membrane and the ion channels allow protons to enter the virus, causing it to release RNA and core proteins including RNA polymerase. In the cell nucleus, RNA polymerase begins transcribing viral RNA. New viral components pass through the cytoplasm or Golgi bodies to the cell membrane where they bud into a new virion. Neuraminidase cleaves salic acid residue from the host cell allowing the virion to escape the cell.
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