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Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821-1894), German physiologist and physicist. Helmholtz electromagnetic coils (producing a region of nearly uniform magnetic field) are named for him. Helmholtz studied medicine and studied the ear and the eye and worked on acoustic theories. He invented the ophthalmoscope and the ophthalmometer. He formulated a form of the law of the conservation of energy, produced vortex theorems in fluid dynamics. The Helmholtz differential equation in mathematical physics is named for him. Artwork from the 14th volume (second period of 1894) of the French popular science weekly 'La Science Illustree'.
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