CAROL & MIKE WERNER / VISUALS UNLIMITED, INC. / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY CAROL & MIKE WERNER / VISUALS UNLIMITED, INC. / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Illustration of environmental toxins and Parkinson's disease. Labelled. Interior of a cell showing environmental toxins such as the herbicide Paraquat (upper left), the pesticide Rotenone (lower right) and the neurotoxin MPTP (lower left). These toxins are lipophilic and can cross the blood-brain barrier and enter dopaminergic neurons. They can disrupt mitochondria activity including damaging the mitochondrial genome (centre left), producing severe levels of oxidative stress that cause necrosis. The damage causes ATP depletion, preventing controlled apoptotic death and causing the cell to simply fall apart. Decreased mitochondrial efficiency is known to increase free radical (upper centre) production by mitochondria. This is believed to increase the.
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