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Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), British philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and liberal political theorist. Spencer began his career in 1848 as a journalist for 'The Economist' magazine. In 1855 he published 'Principals of Psychology', in which he applied Darwin's ideas on evolution to man, which Darwin had originally avoided. He also coined the phrase 'survival of the fittest' and applied it to sociology and economics. His ideas are seen as part of Social Darwinism. Spencer was a polymath, writing on a wide range of subjects. He was immensely authoritative in his lifetime, but his influence declined sharply after his death.
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