MAURICIO ANTON / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY MAURICIO ANTON / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Illustration of a Neanderthal (Homo neanderthalensis) man throwing a rock. Neanderthals were relatives of humans that inhabited Europe and western Asia between around 230,000 and 29,000 years ago. They did not use complex tools but had mastery of fire and built shelters. It is not known why they became extinct, but many suspect they were outcompeted by modern humans.
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