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Cellular respiration metabolic cycles used in living organisms to extract energy from fuels. Orange dots indicate the number of carbon atoms. Shown in the cellular fluid (cytosol) is glycolysis and the anaerobic (lack of oxygen) alcoholic and lactate fermentations. In the mitochondrion are the aerobic (oxidative) process of the citric acid cycle, beta-oxidation, respiration, and electron transport chain. Oxygen (O2) is used, producing water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Other molecules shown are: acetyl CoA (acetyl coenzyme A), and the energy-carrying molecules NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and FADH (flavin adenine dinucleotide).
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