CAROL AND MIKE WERNER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY CAROL AND MIKE WERNER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Genetically engineered T-cell attacking a cancer cell. Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) are genetically engineered from specific monoclonal antibodies. These fusion receptors are comprised of a targeting portion (in this case, a single chain antibody), coupled via a hinge and transmembrane element to a modular signalling domain. This is a third generation CAR in which signalling and additional stimulation is provided by a T-cell receptor complex, CD28 and a tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFr). Contact between the MHC peptide and the TCR triggers the release and exocytosis of granzymes from cytotoxic granules. IL-2 to further boost their anti-cancer activity.
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