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Ocean carbonate saturation, 2100

Ocean carbonate saturation, 2100


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Map showing the saturation state of aragonite, a form of calcium carbonate, in the world's oceans in 2100. Higher levels of saturation are blue, with saturation decreasing through yellow and orange to very low levels (red). More than a quarter of the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere is absorbed by the oceans, where it reacts with water to form carbonic acid. This reaction lowers the concentration of carbonate ions, which are used by many marine organisms, such as coral, to form shells. As carbon dioxide levels rise and more is absorbed by the oceans, those organisms that need carbonate to make their shells will find it harder to survive. Computer model based on predictions for future CO2 emissions.

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