DR MARK J. WINTER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY DR MARK J. WINTER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Vitamin B5, molecular model. The chemical formula for vitamin B5, also called pantothenic acid, is C9.H17.N.O5. Atoms are represented as rods and are colour-coded: carbon (blue), hydrogen (gold), nitrogen (dark blue) and oxygen (red). Vitamin B5 is vital to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. It is found in nearly all foods and is particularly abundant in cereals, legumes, eggs, meat and nuts. Deficiency in vitamin B5 is very rare and is usually only seen in those living in areas of famine. It can cause allergies, nausea, fatigue, muscle cramps, adrenal gland malfunctions, acute liver failure and hepatic encephalopathy (a brain abnormality related to liver failure).
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