LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, GEOGRAPHY AND MAP DIVISION / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, GEOGRAPHY AND MAP DIVISION / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Aratus planisphere. Earth-centred (geocentric) worldview described in the 9th-century manuscript 'Phaenomena' by 3rd-century BC Greek philosopher Aratus. Circling the Earth are the Moon, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the zodiac (outer circle). Mercury and Venus are orbiting the Sun. Scholars study terrestrial and celestial globes at lower right and lower left. This illustration is from the 1708 edition of 'Harmonica Macrocosmica' by the Dutch-German mathematician and cosmographer Andreas Cellarius (1596-1665). First published in 1660, this Amsterdam edition was published by Petrus Schenk and Gerard Valk.
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