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Hieroglyphics research. Table from the 1824 book on hieroglyphics by French Egyptologist Jean-Francois Champollion (1790-1832). This book ('Precis du systeme hieroglyphique des anciens egyptiens') was the culmination of Champollion's initial work to decipher the hieroglyphics used in Ancient Egypt. He achieved this by using the Rosetta Stone. Discovered by Napoleon's army in 1799 in Rashid (Rosetta), its three parallel languages (everyday script [demotic], Greek, and hieroglyphics) allowed decoding of hieroglyphics. This table shows the phonetics of hieroglyphics, from the pure form (left) through linear and hieratic forms to demotic.
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