MARTYN F. CHILLMAID / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY MARTYN F. CHILLMAID / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Graphite, molecular model. Graphite is used in pencil leads and as a lubricant. It is composed of parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms (black). Within each layer the carbon atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, while the parallel layers are linked together by weak Van der Waals' forces. This Van der Waals' bonding is strong enough to hold the layers together, yet weak enough to let them slide over each other. This confers graphite's softness and its ability to act as a lubricant. This model is to the scale of 1 centimetre = 0.1 nanometers.
Model release not required. Property release not required.