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RHYS LEWIS, AHS, DECD, UNISA / ANIMATE4.COM / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY RHYS LEWIS, AHS, DECD, UNISA / ANIMATE4.COM / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Calcium electronic structure. Animation of the electronic structure of the element calcium. An atom of this element has 20 electrons, shown here as black dots in shells around the nucleus (centre). The electrons are in four shells. The animation zooms in to show the two electrons in the first shell (both in the 1s orbital). There are eight electrons each filling both the second shell (the 2s and 2p orbitals) and the third shell (the 3s and 3p orbitals). Finally, there are two electrons in the fourth shell (the 4s orbital). The electron configuration is 2,8,8,2. The isotope shown here is calcium-40, with a nucleus of 20 protons (red) and 20 neutrons (blue). All isotopes of an element have the same electronic structure.
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