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RHYS LEWIS / JON BAUGH / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY RHYS LEWIS / JON BAUGH / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Peptide bond formation. Animation of the bonds forming in a peptide chain during protein synthesis. Peptide chains are formed from chemical groups called amino acids. The atoms are colour-coded here: carbon (grey), hydrogen (white), oxygen (red) and nitrogen (blue). The start of the animation shows two amino acids, alanine (left) and glycine (right). The animation shows a peptide bond forming by a reaction between the carboxyl (COOH) group of glycine and the amine group (NH2) of alanine. A molecule of water (H2O) is produced in what is called a condensation reaction (or a dehydration reaction), forming a dipeptide bond. The animation then shows a further two amino acids being added to the peptide chain, cysteine (left) and asparagine (right). The cysteine molecule includes a sulphur atom (yellow). The final stage of the animation shows the protein (peptide) chain being extended further. This is the primary structure of a protein. For a sequence of clips showing the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary protein structures, see clips K005/6273, K005/6274, K005/6278 and K005/6276. For the entire sequence with text labels, see clip K005/6277.
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