SHEILA TERRY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SHEILA TERRY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Woodcut illustration of artificial arms and hands designed by the French military surgeon Ambroise Pare, taken from the 1575 edition of 'Les Oeuvres de Ambroise Pare”, one of the earliest written references to prosthetics. Considered one of the fathers of surgery and modern forensic pathology, he was a leader in surgical techniques and pioneered modern battlefield wound treatment relating especially to both upper-limb and lower-limb prostheses. He introduced the use of metal such as the ratchet and pawl in the components of the artificial arm, and the catches and springs in 'Le Petit Lorrain' mechanical hand. Pare was made the official royal surgeon by his practice of medicine on the battlefield.
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