RAMON ANDRADE 3DCIENCIA / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY RAMON ANDRADE 3DCIENCIA / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
V-ATPase molecule, molecular model. Computer illustration showing the molecular structure of a single Vacuolar-type ATPase (V-ATPase) enzyme. V-ATPases are evolutionarily ancient enzymes that help transport ions across cell membranes, usually protons and sodium ions. The underlying reaction providing the energy is the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is catalysed by this enzyme. Each molecule contains a rotor ring (ring-shaped, bottom) through which the ions pass as they cross the cell membrane. The rotor consists of a number of individual subunits (insets) composed of different protein chains.
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