DENNIS KUNKEL MICROSCOPY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY DENNIS KUNKEL MICROSCOPY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Epithelial cell cilia with microtubules from ciliated epithelia in central nervous system (CNS, hippocampus), coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). Each cilia shows the 9 + 2 microtubule arrangement. Cilia are microscopic, hair-like organelles that extend from the surface of nearly all mammalian cells. The ciliary apparatus is connected to cell cycle progression and proliferation, and cilia play a vital part in human and animal development. Cilia are divided into two types, motile and non-motile. Motile cilia are found in the lungs, respiratory tract and middle ear. They have a rhythmic waving motion. Non-motile (or primary) cilia were thought to be evolutionary vestigial organs. They are now recognised as playing crucial roles in a number of organs. Motile cilia are characterized by a typical 9+2 architecture with nine outer microtubule doublets and a central pair of microtubules. Magnification: x24,330 when shortest axis printed at 25.
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