DENNIS KUNKEL MICROSCOPY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY DENNIS KUNKEL MICROSCOPY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) Coqui frog skin and spiracle (Eleutherodactylus coqui) with bacteria near the spiracle opening. The coqui, also called the little frog in Puerto Rico, has only a minute tail when it is born, which quickly disappears. The frog is covered by a soft, thin, moist skin composed of two layers, an outer epidermis and an inner dermis. The skin does not merely protect the frog but helps in respiration. Breathing pores in skin are called spiracles. An extensive network of blood vessels runs throughout the frog's skin. Oxygen can pass through the membranous skin, thereby entering directly into the blood. When a frog submerges beneath the water, all its respiration takes place through the skin. Oxygen is obtained directly from the water. The frog does not breathe through its skin alone. Adult frogs have paired, simple, saclike lungs. Magnification: x2,000 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres.
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