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Refraction experiment. A coin has been placed under water in a glass, and is being viewed from three different angles (A, B and C). The person viewing from position A (left) sees the coin at its normal size. The person viewing from position B (centre, overhead) sees a smaller coin. Viewing from position C (right, lowest angle) results in a magnified and distorted view. This is due to refraction of the light as it passes through the water, air and glass. This illustration, part of a section titled 'Experiences de Physique sans Appareils' (illustrating popular physics experiments that don't require the use of laboratory equipment), is from 'Physique Populaire' (Emile Desbeaux, 1891).
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