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Skulls of criminals. At top left is a brigand named Gasparone (who died aged 88), with anatomical views of his skull at upper right and across centre. The skull shown across bottom is that of a 35-year-old thief, said to resemble the skull of a Neanderthal. This illustration is from 'L'Homme Criminel', a French edition of 'L'Uomo Delinquente' (1876) by Italian criminologist and physician Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909). Considered the father of criminology, his work was based on physiognomy, anthropology, and evolutionary theory (atavism). His now-discredited theory (also rejected by many at the time) was that criminality was inherited and that criminals could be identified by physical traits.
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