50.0 MB (3.2 MB compressed)
4477 x 3903 pixels
37.8 x 33.0 cm ⏐ 14.9 x 13.0 in (300dpi)
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Gas liquefaction machine. 19th-century illustration of the gas liquefaction machine developed in the 1870s by French physicist Louis-Paul Cailletet (1832-1913). Cailletet's method used the Joule-Thomson effect. He cooled a gas while it was highly compressed, and then allowed the gas to rapidly expand, which cooled it further. This enabled him to liquefy oxygen which condenses at minus 183 degrees Celsius. This illustration is from 'Physique Populaire' (Emile Desbeaux, 1891).
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