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Jean-Augustin Barral (1819-1884). French agricultural chemist, meteorologist, physicist and professor Jean-Augustin Barral. Barral was the first to extract nicotine from tobacco leaves. In 1850, with Jacques Alexandre Bixio, he made two aerostatic scientific expeditions in a hydrogen-filled balloon to observe variations in the temperature, atmospheric pressure and humidity in the atmosphere at different altitudes. The severe weather conditions on the second flight made observations difficult but they attained a height of 7016 meters, though the temperature fell to 39 degrees F. below zero.
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