IBM RESEARCH / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY IBM RESEARCH / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Deep Blue supercomputer. This chess-playing machine was a 32-node IBM RS/6000 SP high-performance computer. It was developed by IBM as a successor to two earlier computer chess projects dating from 1985 (ChipTest and then Deep Thought). The principal design was by computer scientist Feng-hsiung Hsu, with chess-related assistance from grandmaster Joel Benjamin. The Deep Blue prototype played in the 8th World Computer Chess Championship in 1995. This was followed by two matches against the World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov. In the first match, in 1996, Deep Blue won a game but lost the match. In the second match, in 1997, Deep Blue made history by defeating Kasparov. In both cases, this was the first time a computer had defeated a reigning world champion at standard time controls. Deep Blue mainly used brute force computing, calculating 200 million positions per second to a depth of many moves.
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