DR P. MARAZZI / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY DR P. MARAZZI / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Woman with COPD. Close-up of an 81-year-old woman with COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). COPD is caused by noxious particles or gas, most commonly from tobacco smoking, which trigger an abnormal inflammatory response in the lung, resulting in difficulty in breathing. There are two main forms: chronic bronchitis, whose symptoms include a long-term cough with mucus, and emphysema (the gradual breakdown of the lungs and collapse of the alveoli). Most people with COPD have a combination of both forms.
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