CLAUS LUNAU / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY CLAUS LUNAU / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Volcanoes on Io, illustration. Io, the third largest of the moons of Jupiter, is also one of the closest to Jupiter (not seen). The powerful Jovian gravity powers volcanoes on Io, forming surface hotspots so that surface temperatures vary greatly, ranging from 2000 to minus 140 degrees Celsius. Io has a thin atmosphere of sulphur dioxide and a gravity that is less than a fifth of that on Earth. Its volcanoes can eject sulphur over 100 kilometres into space. Hundreds of active volcanoes on Io make it the most geologically active body in the solar system.
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