CLOUDS HILL IMAGING LTD / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY CLOUDS HILL IMAGING LTD / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Blood group test results. Close-up footage of blood samples that have been typed into blood groups by being mixed with antibody serum in a laboratory. The samples have been placed onto a spot plate (or reaction plate) and a pipette was used to add antibody serums. There are four human blood types (groups): A, B, AB and O. The antibody serums will react with the antigens in the blood, with the resulting appearance of the blood used to identify the blood group. Type A blood has type A antigens (surface proteins) on its blood cells and anti-B antibodies (proteins that bind to type B antigens) in its serum. Type B blood is the reverse. Mixing type A blood with anti-A serum (first column, first row) causes an agglutination reaction. Type B blood undergoes the same reaction with anti-B serum (second column, second row). AB blood has no antibodies, but has both A and B antigens on its cells, so it agglutinates with both serums (third column). Type O blood has both antibodies but no antigens, so it does not react to the serums (fourth column). For a sequence showing the blood group testing, see clips K006/5135, K006/5130, K006/5137, K006/5161, K006/5185, K006/5132, and K006/5192.
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