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Kidney dialysis patient with arteriovenous shunt. Close-up of the arm of a man undergoing dialysis for a kidney disorder, who has had an arteriovenous (AV) shunt (or fistula) created in his arm (joining the two wounds in his upper arm). AV fistula surgery joins an artery to a vein. This makes needle insertion easier during haemodialysis. Kidney dialysis (haemodialysis) is used for those with reduced or failing kidney function. A machine is used to remove waste and excess water from the blood, a function normally served by the kidneys. Photographed in India.
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