SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
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Sidonie Gruenberg and Bird Stein Gans, US parenting experts. At left is US writer Sidonie Matsner Gruenberg (1881-1974), with US educator Bird Stein Gans (1868-1944) at right. Gruenberg wrote 'Your Child Today and Tomorrow' and was director of the Child Study Association of America from 1923 to 1950. Gans co-founded the Society for the Study of Child Nature in 1888. The founders of this society believed that parenting was a learned skill rather than an instinctual one. They believed that scientific knowledge could help provide a sound basis for rearing children, studying child nature from psychological, ethical, and physical perspectives.
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