MIKKEL JUUL JENSEN / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY MIKKEL JUUL JENSEN / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Arctic exploration. Map of the Arctic showing the routes taken by Fridtjof Nansen (1893 to 1896, brown), Frederick Cook (1907 to 1909, red), Robert Peary (1909, blue) and Umberto Nobile (1926, green). Nansen spent over a year on the ship Fram, being carried in the drifting pack ice. He then attempted to reach the North Pole on foot (dotted line), but was forced to turn back, eventually reaching land in Norway. Both Cook and Peary claimed to have reached the North Pole. Both claims were contested, but Peary was considered to have the stronger claim. Nobile piloted the airship Norge, the first aircraft to fly over the North Pole.
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