PATRICK LANDMANN / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY PATRICK LANDMANN / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Fossil skull cast of a Neanderthal (Homo neanderthalensis) an extinct hominid species. Neanderthals were relatives of modern humans that lived in Europe between around 150,000 and 40,000 years ago. They were formerly thought to be primitive relatives of modern humans, but they are now considered to have been a separate species. They had thicker brows and a larger, more prominent jaw than modern humans, and were stockier. Their brains were large, however. Their stature gives the impression that they evolved to survive in a cold climate.
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