JOSE CALVO / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY JOSE CALVO / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Large kidney stones located in the renal calyces. They are probably calcium (oxalate or phosphate) stones. Kidney stones may cause severe pain. A small stone may be passed spontaneously. A large stone may block the flow of urine and is removed surgically or by using sound waves, applied externally, which break it up. The mucosa of the renal pelvis show a blue colour due to congestion.
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