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Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821-1894), German physiologist and physicist. Helmholtz studied medicine, graduating in 1842 from the Royal Medicochirurgical Institute of Berlin. Helmholtz studied the ear and the eye and worked on acoustic theories. Helmholtz electromagnetic coils (producing a region of nearly uniform magnetic field) are named for him. He invented the ophthalmoscope and the ophthalmometer. He formulated a form of the law of the conservation of energy, and produced vortex theorems in fluid dynamics. The Helmholtz differential equation in mathematical physics is named for him.
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