THE MIRIAM AND IRA D. WALLACH DIVISION OF ART, PRINTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS: ART & ARCHITECTURE COLLECTION / NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY THE MIRIAM AND IRA D. WALLACH DIVISION OF ART, PRINTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS: ART & ARCHITECTURE COLLECTION / NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Editorial use only.
Galton's eugenics, Jewish portraits, 1870s. Copy of 'The Jewish Type', a photographic study made by British polymath and founder of eugenics Francis Galton (1822-1911). Galton developed (initially in parallel with Herbert Spencer) the idea and method of combining images, (Galton used negative exposures) of the faces of a number of individuals sharing a perceived 'characteristic' (health, race, profession, criminality etc) to gain an average type. This composite of 'The Jewish Type' was used in anthropological research and identification of generic lines of descent. Galton believed composite photography scientifically formalised the physical traits people use everyday to make classification judgements of people. This version was published in an 1885 volume of 'Photographic news for amateur photographers.
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