JOHN BAVARO FINE ART / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY JOHN BAVARO FINE ART / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Neanderthal skull and head. Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) inhabited Europe and western Asia between 230,000 and 29,000 years ago. They did not use complex tools but had mastery of fire and built shelters. It is thought that they had language and a complex social structure, living in small family groups and hunting for food. It is not known why Neanderthals became extinct, but one theory is that they were out-competed by modern humans (Homo sapiens).
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