GARY BROWN / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY GARY BROWN / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Caricature of the Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856), Count of Quaregna and Cerreto, holding balloons of the same volume, containing the same number of molecules of different gases. Avogadro is best known for his contribution to the molecular theory now known as Avogadro's law, which states that equal volumes of gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure will contain equal numbers of molecules. In tribute to him, the number of elementary particles (atoms, molecules, ions or other particles) in 1 mole of a substance, is known as the Avogadro constant. It is one of the seven SI base units.
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