MARK GARLICK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY MARK GARLICK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Illustration of the Valles Marineris canyon system, Mars, being surveyed by a pair of astronauts. The Valles Marineris is over 4000 kilometres (km) long, up to 200 km wide and up to 7 km deep, dwarfing the Grand Canyon of Arizona, USA. The canyons are found on the southeastern edge of the Tharsis Bulge and were originally created by faulting during the formation of Tharsis. The canyons have been further worn down by water and wind erosion. Finally, slumping has helped widen the canyon so that the bottom is visible from space.
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