SOVEREIGN, ISM / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SOVEREIGN, ISM / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Coloured X-ray discography (side view) of the lumbar spine of a patient, showing a needle correctly inserted in the L4-L5 intervertebral disc. Chymopapain enzyme is then injected into the disc to treat disc herniation (pulposus) by chemonucleolysis (CNL); water then binds to a disc protein to support the disc. Chymopapain chemonuclolysis is the least invasive technique to treat lumbar disc herniation and relieve pain from related sciatica.
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